In this post, we discuss (What is internet)and the types of internet, uses of internet, history of internet, who invented internet, Internet Service Provider etc.
A network refers to a group of computers connected and communicating together, the Internet stands for Interconnected Network. It is a huge network of computers spread all around the world. Several millions of computers are connected to the Internet as of now. These computers are connected to each other through telephone lines, optical fibers, wireless links, satellites, modems, and many other communication devices, enabling them to share information with each other.
- 1 CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET
- 1.1 Internet Service Provider (ISP)
- 1.2 POPULAR INTERNET SERVICES
The Internet is also popularly called the Net. The information stored in so many computers on the Net makes it a huge storehouse of information. These pieces of information can be shared among Internet users in a variety of ways.
CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET
The requirements for connecting your computer to the Internet depends on the type of Internet connection you have.
Let us learn about the devices and services that enable us to connect our computers to the Internet
A modem is a device that permits a computer to connect and communicate with other computers. The modem stands for a modulator-demodulator. There are three common types of modems: a cable modem, a telephone modem, and a wireless modem.
A cable modem is a device that helps you connect your computer to a local cable TV line to access Internet services. It has two connection outlets: one to the cable outlet and the other to the computer being connected.
A telephone modem is a device that helps you connect your computer to a telephone line to access Internet services.
A wireless modem transmits (carries) the data signals through space instead of a wire or a cable. It is specially designed to work with cellular networks (cell phones) and wireless local area networks.
Modems can be either internal or external (Fig. 6.1). An internal modem is fitted inside the computer whereas an external modem is placed outside the computer. An external modem may be wired or wireless.
The speed of a modem is measured in terms of bps (bits per second).
Data Transfer Media
A medium, such as a telephone line or cable, is used to transfer data from one computer to another. A medium can be a wired medium (for example, a telephone line) or a wireless medium (for example, space). Examples of internet connections using wired and wireless media are shown in the computer is connected to a modem, which is, in turn, connected to a telephone line. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) connects the wire to the Internet. The computer is connected through wireless media.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
To get an Internet connection, you need a subscription with any ISP for which you have to pay a monthly or an annual fee. Some of the popular ISPs in India are:
- Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)
- Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL)
- Idea Cellular
In broadband technology, a computer is continuously connected to the Internet through a phone line. It provides high-speed Internet access. It is further classified into the following types:
- Wired broadband
- Wireless broadband
- Wireless mobile broadband
Wired broadband is a high-speed Internet service provided via wired technology. In this technology, a broadband modem is connected to a phone line which receives the Internet service. This type of connection is generally used in a house where only one computer is connected to the Internet
Wireless broadband is a high-speed Internet service provided via wireless technology. Any computer equipped with wireless capability is said to have a Wi-Fi facility. Nowadays, it is available in hospitals, airports, and in many homes. In this technology, a wireless broadband modem receives the signals from a phone line or through satellite and transmits it to the surroundings. The transmission is limited to some inches only. Wireless broadband requires a wireless modem, a telephone line or
Wireless Mobile Broadband
Wireless mobile broadband is a high-speed Internet service provided via wireless technology, usually meant for use while you are away from your home or office. To connect to the Internet, you need a device called a dongle. A dongle is a small USB device that allows you to access the Internet a USB modem as well as an Internet stick. It is popular because it can be used anywhere even when one is traveling.
Wireless and Mobile Communication
Wireless communication is a type of data communication without the use of physical wires or cables. This may involve cellphones, fixed wireless, laser, or satellite links. In wireless communication, the communicating device is continuously connected to the base network.
In mobile communication, the communicating device is not continuously connected to the base or central network. A mobile device may be a cellphone, a laptop computer, or maybe one of the many hand-held devices.
We have now mobile phones that can access the Internet. These are called smartphones because they can do a lot more than just receive or make calls. You can use mobile phones to access the Internet on the go. You only need to plug a USB modem into your laptop or use your cellphone to connect to the Internet.
2G (Second Generation)
Mobile data services started in the second generation (2G) mobile telecommunication systems. Every new generation of mobile telecommunication system marks a significant improvement in transmission technology, data rates, and frequency bandwidths.
3G (Third Generation)
The third generation of mobile telecommunication technology provides high data transfer speed of at least 200 Kbps. It finds application in video calls, mobile Internet access, GPS (Global Positioning System, and fixed wireless Internet access.
4G (Fourth Generation)
It is an extension of 3G technology. It offers further higher data rates. The typical speed is 100 Mbps for mobile users and up to 1 Gbps for fixed stations. This technology is basically used for high quality audio/video data transfer such as gaming, high-definition mobile TV, and cloud computing,
5G (Fifth Generation)
5G technology is likely to be developed during 2018 and 2020. 5G (Fifth Generation of wireless broadband technology will provide better speeds and coverage than 4G. It will provide speed of up to 1 Gbps for all the types of communication
Many establishments such as hotels and airports offer public access to Wi-Fi networks so that people can log on to the Internet and work on the move. These locations are known as hotspots. Hotspots are areas wherein Wi-Fi Internet services are available for use. The services may accessible free of charge or for a fee.
POPULAR INTERNET SERVICES
The number and variety of tools and services available on the Internet is difficult to count, Some of the most popular Internet tools and services have been discussed in this section
A blog or a weblog is a website on which articles and contents are posted regularly. They are displayed in reverse sequential order, i.e., the most recent entry first. Blog entries can have text, hypertext images, links to other web pages, video, and audio.
A blog usually focuses on the topic of a particular area of interest. Some blogs, especially those of celebrities, discuss personal experiences and thoughts.
Authoring a blog, maintaining a blog, and adding an article to an existing blog is called blogging. Individual articles or contents on a blog are called blog posts or entries. Blogs are created through blog-publishing services offered by many companies. For example, wordpress.com is a popular blog-hosting service owned by Automatic a web development company. Blogger, owned by Google, is at present the most popular blogging service in use today.
Online telephony or Internet telephony is a technology that helps users to make telephone calls over the Internet. You can talk to somebody who is using a computer. You can make domestic or international calls from your computer to a telephone and smartphone. When you make a call to a phone, your call goes over the Internet to a local telephone network and then to the telephone you are calling.
The only requirement for online telephony is that your computer needs an Internet connection, speakers, and microphone. Calls made over the Internet are much cheaper than normal phone calls.
Skype is the most popular Internet telephony software. With Skype, computer-to-computer calls are free. Calls from Skype to a telephone number are not free, but rates are quite low. The Skype software is available for free download from the website www.skype.com
Cloud computing or simply cloud’ is a technology that uses the Internet and central remote servers (computers) to hold data and applications. It allows organizations and users to use applications without installing the software on their local computers. They can access their files and data from any computer with Internet access. Centralized storage, memory, and processing allow efficient and cost-effective computing,
Think Free Online, Google Apps, Google Drive, and Microsoft Office 365 are examples of cloud computing services. Office 365 is an online service meant for organizations. It offers email, shared calendars, the ability to create and edit documents, instant messaging conferencing, and much more.
Think Free Online gives access to a set of office programs without needing to install them on your personal computer. You can write, save, share, and open office documents online,
Cloud computing has enormous potential. It is expected that, by 2020, most people will use online software applications and save their files online, rather than depending on software and files on their personal systems.
Online File Sharing
An online file sharing service provides a way or idea to store and access information in the ‘cloud rather than locally on a hard drive. This information could be anything documents, presentations data, photos, videos, etc. The advantage of using an online sharing service is that you do not have to support and maintain the data and computers yourself.
Information in an online file sharing service can be accessed from any device with an Internet connection, including smartphones and tablets, and by anyone who has data access rights. Examples are OneDrive for any document, Picasa for photos and images, and YouTube for videos.
OneDrive (previously called Windows Live SkyDrive) is a password-protected storage area in the cloud, like an online hard disk, hosted by Microsoft Corporation. You can use it to store your files, and access them any time you are online. Users can choose which files they want to share with contacts, want to make public, or want keep private. They can control permissions and decide who can view and/or edit shared documents. OneDrive provides 15 GB of free storage and you can pay to get more.
Google Drive is a file storage service device provided by Google. You can store your files on the server and open or edit them from any device using Google Drive. You can get up to 15 GB of space in your Drive for free. You can easily upload files from your computer or create files on Google
Drive using Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides. You can also share files and folders with others so that they can view, edit, or comment on them.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
File Transfer Protocol is the simplest and most secure mechanism to exchange files over the Internet. When you download a file from a website, you are using the Internet to transfer the file from the other computer to your computer. That is why there is a T (Transfer) in FTP.
FTP servers can be public or private. Public FTP servers do not require a login and password, whereas private FTP servers do. An FTP address looks like an HTTP or a website address, except that the prefix is FTP:// instead of https://
FTP works on a client-server model. A client program lets the user access information and services on the server computer. Follow these steps to access an FTP server :
- Open the FTP website. A dialog box appears, asking you to enter the username and password
- After connecting to the FTP server using Windows Explorer to upload download, or delete files.
Send space provides a free file transfer service to the user who wants to send large files that cannot be sent as an email attachment. You can upload and share files up to 300 MB each and download 1GB of files every day
WeTransfer is a cloud-based service that is used to transfer files. You share files up to 2GB for free. You just have to give your email address, receivers’ email addresses, attach the file, and send
Online gaming means playing any type of virtual game over the Internet or over a computer network. Many online games are multiplayer (i.e., played by several people at the same time). Destiny 2, The Elder Scrolls Online, and World of Warcraft are examples of online multiplayer games.
Requirements of online gaming are:
- High-speed Internet connection
- Proper hardware (e.g., a PC, a gaming console such as PlayStation 4 or Xbox One, a tablet, or a smartphone)
- Gaming software
- Gaming control devices, e.g., joysticks or gamepads
- Latest web browser (for browser-based games)
Mobile online multiplayer games, available on smartphones and tablets, are also immensely popular. Clash of Clans, Hearthstone, Hay Day, and Clash Royale are examples of such games.
It is also possible to share your gameplay, recorded or live, with other people through services such as Twitch, PlayStation Now, and YouTube Gaming. This method of playing media straight from the Internet, without downloading it first, is known as streaming.