Followings are Amazing Science Facts:-
1. What is an Atom made of?
Everything is made of tiny particles called atoms. Every atom is made of even smaller particles. In the center is the nucleus. Around it move very tiny particles called electrons.
2. What is an electron?
An electron is a very tiny piece of electricity. The amount of electricity that an electron has is the smallest amount that is possible to have. When an electric current flows through a wire, electrons leave the atoms in the wire and move to other atoms. To light a torch bulb, more than a million million million electrons have to flow through the wire in the bulb every second.
3. What is an element?
Everything is made of elements. The hydrogen and oxygen in water are both elements. About 100 different elements exist naturally in the whole universe.
4. What is mercury?
Mercury is the only liquid metal. All other metals, like iron, copper, or aluminum are solid. However, mercury becomes solid if it gets cold enough. But it has to be at least-39°C or colder. Mercury is used in thermometers and barometers.
5. What does white light consist of?
White light is a mixture of colors. If you pass white light through a glass prism, it splits up into a band of colors called spectrum. If the spectrum colors are passed through another prism, they mix together to give white.
6. What causes a mirage?
A mirage is an image of a place or a thing that you can see on the ground some distance away Mirages happen on warm days, and often look like pools of water. You see them because warm air near the ground bends light rays. An image of the sky appears on the ground. This is the ‘pool of water.
7. What is a laser?
A laser is a machine that produces a very powerful beam of light. The beam is very thin, and it is not like ordinary light. The rays in a laser beam travel in step with one another, rather like soldiers marching in step. Ordinary light rays do not do this.
8. What are lasers used for?
Because the light waves in a laser beam are all in step and the beam is very straight, lasers can be used to measure distances very accurately indeed. Lasers are used in guiding missiles and aiming guns as well as in surveying. Lasers are also used on compact discs, players, and video disc systems to playback sound and pictures from the disc without touching them. The beam is reflected from the moving disc, which has the sound or pictures recorded on the surface in the form of a code. The laser beam takes up the code, which is then decoded to give the sound and pictures.
9. What is sound?
A sound is a form of energy, it moves in waves. The waves consist of bands of high and low pressure, one after the other. As these bands of pressure strike the eardrums, they make them vibrate to and fro. This movement causes signals to go along nerves from the ears to the brain, and you hear the sound.
10. What causes an echo?
When you hear an echo of a sound, you hear the sound twice or more. What happens is that the sound waves bounce off a nearby wall or some other large surface. They reach your ears after the sound waves that have gone directly to your ears, and you hear an echo.
11. Who invented the Barometer?
A barometer measures the pressure of air. The scientist Evangelista Torricelli of Italy invented the barometer in 1643. He found that the pressure of the air forces mercury up a tube to a certain height. Thus height is a measure of the air pressure.
12. Who invented the microscope?
No single person invented the kind of microscope we use today, which has two or more lenses. It was developed by several scientists in Holland, Italy, and Britain about 1600 onwards.
13. Who discovered cells?
All living things are made up of cells. The cells are usually very small and can be seen only with a microscope. The first scientist to use microscopes observed cells but did not realize what they were. The British scientist Robert Hooke gave cells their name when he observed them in cork.
14. Who first produced an electric current? Luigi Galvani, an Italian doctor, first produced an electric current around 1780. He hung some frog’s legs on iron railings with copper hooks. He noticed that the legs twitched. The reason was that the metals produced a weak electric current in them.
15. Who invented the Battery?
The battery was invented by the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta in 1800. It was made of a pile of silver and zinc discs with layers of cardboard soaked in salty water between them. The voltaic pile as it was called produced a strong electric current.
16. Who was Charles Darwin?
Charles Darwin was a British scientist who alive from 1809 to 1882. He first showed that all living things evolve. This happens because when an animal is born, it may be very slightly different from its parents. Thus once many generations, the animal may change its form and slowly evolve into a different kind of animal. This is called evolution. Darwin’s theory of evolution was published in 1859.
17. Who discovered the laws of Heredity?
Heredity makes children resemble both their parents in certain ways. Animals and plants pass on their features to. The person who discovered how heredity works was a monk named Gregor Mendel. He lived in Czechoslovakia from 1822 to 1884. Mendel discovered the laws of heredity by planting peas in the garden and studying the plants that grew.
18. Who linked electricity and Magnetism?
The Danish scientist Hans Oersted discovered that electricity produces magnetism in 1820. He placed a compass needle near a wire. When an electric current flowed in the wire, the needle moved because the current made the wire magnetic.
19. Who discovered Radioactivity?
Radioactivity consists of invisible rays. They were discovered in 1896 by the French Scientist Antoine Becquerel. He detected the rays coming from a mineral containing uranium which is now used as a nuclear fuel. Radioactivity is also called radiation and it can be harmful. A radiation sign is used to warn people of radioactivity.
20. Who discovered Radium?
Marie Curie, who was born in Poland but lived in France, discovered Radium along with her husband Pierre Curie. They thought that a mineral called pitchblende contained an unknown element. It took them four years to produce the element because the mineral had a very small amount of it. They called the new element Radium and it is used to treat the dangerous illness of cancer.
21. When were spectacles first worn?
Spectacles were first worn in Italy in about 1285. They improved the vision of people who could not see close objects clearly.
22. When were the first books printed?
The first books were printed in China and Korea in about AD 700. The earliest ones know as scrolls in which the writing was printed with wooden blocks. It took a long time for printing to reach Europe. Books were first printed in Ger many in about 1450.
23. When was the first calculator made?
The first instrument to help people make calculations was the abacus. This had leads that are move along wires in a frame to represent numbers. It developed in Babylonia in about 3000 BC. The first calculating machine was invented in France in 1642. It could add and subtract numbers automatically
24. When were steam engines first used?
The first successful steam engine was made by the British engineer Thomas Newcomen in 1712. It was used throughout the water of mines. James Watt later improved Newcomen’s engine. He is said to have been inspired by watching steam lift a kettle lid,
25. When was the first lift used?
The first lift for taking people from one floor to another was used in 1743. It was built for King Louis XV of France. The safety lift, which stops if the rope holding it should break, was invented in 1853 by the American engineer Elisha Otis.
26. When were the first skyscrapers built?
Skyscrapers are high buildings with many floors The first was built in Chicago in the United States in 1883. It had ten floors. After the safety lift was invented in 1853, tall buildings could be built because people did not have to climb stairs.
27. When was the electric light invented?
The first kind of electric light was the electric arc. It was a continuous electric spark. Humphry Davy produced the first electric arc in Britain in 1802. However, it was too bright to be used in houses. Electric light bulbs began to be used in 1880.
28. When were telephones first used?
The telephone was invented in the United States by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. The first telephones were used in Beston in 1877, and the first public call box was installed in Connecticut in 1880. The first automatic telephone exchange opened at La Porte, Indiana, in 1882.
29. When were X-Rays discovered?
X-rays were discovered in 1895 by the Scientist of Germany Wilhelm Roentgen. He found them by accident. Roentgen was experimenting with a cathode-ray tube, an early form of the tube used today in television sets. One day he noticed that some crystals in the room glowed with light when the tube was switched on. This was because the tube produced X-rays.
30. When was the Television invented?
The first television picture was produced by the British inventor John Logie Baird in 1924. It was a still picture of a cross that transmitted a distance of three meters. Baird’s system is not the electronic television system that we use today. Electronic Television was invented in the United States in 1927 at Philo Farnsworth.
31. When was nuclear power first produced?
Nuclear power was first produced by the Italian scientist Enrico Fermi in the United States in 1942 Fermi built the first nuclear reactor at Chicago. t the reactor, uranium was used to produce heat. This kind of reactor is used in nuclear power stations today.
32. How does a microwave oven work?
A microwave oven does not have burning flames or red hot plates like gas and electric cookers. You put food into a box and press a switch. Inside the box, invisible heat rays bombard the food and cook it very quickly. The microwaves are like radio waves. Microwaves penetrate into the food and cook it on the inside as well as the outside. Some microwave ovens contain small computers that automatically cook the food at the correct temperature for the right length of time.
33. How do bubbles get into fizzy drinks?
When you open a fizzy drink bubbles form inside the drink. There are bubbles of gas called carbon dioxide, and help to make the drink taste sharp. The gas is dissolved in the drink when it is made in the factory
34. How does a vacuum flask keep things hot?
A vacuum flask is designed to prevent heat loss in several ways. The silver wall of the container inside the flask reflects heat rays back into the container. In addition, there is a vacuum between the walls of the container to stop heat flowing through the walls. The container is surrounded by an outer shell made of insulation materials that slow down the rate of heat loss so heat leaks out of the flask very slowly.
35. How can rooms be made soundproof?
Sound waves travel through the air and even trig hard materials such as glass, stone, and brick. However, the waves get weaker as they travel and not much sound gets through thick walls. A glass windowpane is too thin to keep out sound, but two panes placed at least 20 centimeters apart weaken the sound waves so that they do not penetrate. To make rooms totally soundproof like recording studios. The walls have no windows The walls and ceiling are also lined with sound-absorbing material like cork and plastic foam.
36. How is Glass Made?
Glass is made from sand, lime, and soda. These are heated in a furnace and they all melt together to produce molten glass. Before it sets hard, the hot glass is soft and it can be made into any shape other ingredients may be added to make the glass stronger or to color it.
37. How does electricity reach home?
As the current leaves the power station, its voltage is increased to as much as 400,000 volts because power lines which carry electricity lose power if it travels at low voltage. The current is then fed into high voltage power lines that distribute electricity through the surrounding regions. Before it can be used, the voltage is lowered in another transformer. Homes receive electric power of between 100 and 250 volts. From the substation, the current travels through cables beneath the streets or overhead wires may be used.
38. How is leather made?
Real leather is made from the hides or skins of animals. Cattle hides are used to make most leather. Other animals that provide leather include pigs, sheep, goats, and also sharks and snakes. To make leather, the hair or fur is removed and then the hides or skins are tanned to stop them from rotting
39. Why do luminous paints glow in the dark?
Luminous paints glow in the dark because they absorb light energy when they are in the light. As soon as it is dark, they give out this energy as a bright glow. The glow fades when all the energy stored in the paint is used up.
40. How are cartoon films made? In a cartoon film, drawings seem to move. In fact, you are seeing 24 different drawings every second which gives the illusion of movement. Each of the drawings is photographed separately with a special movie camera.
41. How does digital watch work?
A digital watch shows the time in numbers. At the heart of the watch is a quartz crystal that vibrates an exact number of times every second. Every time it vibrates, it produces an electric signal. The other parts of the watch count the signals and change the numbers in the display to show the right time.
42. How does a mirror work?
When you look in a mirror, light rays go from you and strike the mirror. The rays bounce off the mirror and come back to your eyes. You see an exact image of yourself, but it is reversed.
43. How can ice float in water?
Ice floats in water because a piece of ice is lighter than the same amount of water.
44. How does a rifle work?
Pulling the trigger of a rifle releases a spring. This makes a firing pin strike the base of a cartridge. The cartridge contains explosives and a bullet. The firing pin sets off the explosive, and the gas produced by the explosion makes the bullet fly out of the rifle.
45. Why do rubber balls bounce?
If you pull a rubber band, it stretches. When you let go, the band immediately springs back to its original size. A rubber ball is like a band in reverse. When the ball hits the ground, it gets smaller. Then it springs back to its original size. As the ball gets bigger, it pushes on the ground. As it does so, it pushes itself up into the air.
46. How does a missile get to its target?
A missile is a rocket with an explosive warhead. When the missile reaches its target the warhead explodes. The missile may chase the target if it is moving. The guidance system in the missile detects heat coming from its engine or uses radar. Other missiles are guided from the ground.
47. Why do wet things shine?
Anything that is completely smooth looks shiny. This is because it reflects all the light towards you. A rough surface can’t do this if it is dry. But if it is wet, the water makes it smooth because it fills in the tiny holes in the surface. It, therefore, looks shiny.
48. Why does a boat float on water?
A boat can float on water even if it is made of metal which is heavier than water. This is the boat pushes aside some of the warm water pushes back on the boat, and support to weight. This makes it float.
49. Why is ice slippery?
If you try to pick up a piece of ice, it usually slips out of your fingers. This is because the warmth of your fingers melts the surface of the ice and turns it into water. A film of water, therefore, forms between your fingers and the ice making the ice feel slippery.
50. Why is flame hot?
In anything that is hot, the molecules are moving or vibrating quickly. The hotter it is, the faster the molecules move or vibrate. In a flame, oxygen in the air is combining with fuel, for example, wood. The molecules of wood and of oxygen each break apart and then come together to form new molecules of ash and also of invisible gases like carbon dioxide, which escapes into the air. As they do so, energy is given out by the old molecules and taken up by the new molecules. However, the new molecules do not take up as much energy as that given out. The extra energy makes them move faster and causes heat to be produced as the wood burns.
51. Why does an electric fire glow?
An electric current consists of a flow to tiny par particles called electrons. As the electrons pass through the wire in the bars of an electric fire, they collide with the molecules of metal in the wire. This makes the molecules vibrate faster and the metal gets hotter. In this way, the energy of electricity is changed into heat energy. At high temperatures, things give out light energy as well as heat energy. At very high temperatures, the light has a lot of energy and is white. But at the lower temperature of an electric fire, the light has less energy and the bars of the fire glow red.
52. Why does metal feel cold?
Metal objects feel cold in a cool climate because the metal is a good conductor of heat. Heat flows through easily. Heat, therefore, flows out of your fingers and flows into the metal. It does this because your fingers are warmer than the metal. The heat moves on through the metal so that the surface of the metal does not get as warm as the skin on your fingers. Heat continues to flow from your fingers into the metal, and it feels cold.