In the east, including India, cotton, wool and silk and within the west, it had been leather, wool and fur which were the primary materials to be used for clothing. Other natural fibres were also being employed in several parts of the country depending upon their availability. it had been towards the 1930s that synthetic fibre was developed.
Rayon was the primary man-made fibre from natural base material:
Rayon is primarily natural and partly synthetic. Its base material is cellulose from cotton, wood or other plant products.
There are three main ways to create rayon:-
(a) Viscose method: Cellulose sheets are shredded to crumbs which are treated with carbon disulphide and dissolved in an alkali (caustic soda). the answer is pumped with a force through ‘spinnerets’, the device with fine openings. the answer comes out through the fine openings within the spinnerets as fibres which are suffered dilute vitriol to harden them.
(b) Cuprammonium process and
(c) Acetate Process which don’t seem to be popular since the products are highly inflammable and lose their lustre on first wash.
Use of Rayon Fibre
Rayon being cellulose is definitely dyed and woven into cloth. Cloth is moisture absorbent, soft and silky. Rayon is widely used as a textile for clothing, curtains, upholstery for furnishing luxury cars and furniture and reinforced nylon tyres. Rayon (acetate) is employed for creating cigarette filters, napkins, and magnetic recording tapes.
Nylon: Discovered in 1938 by Wallance. it’s a ‘polyamide’. it’s the strongest synthetic fibre used for creating ropes, cords, hosiery and sports clothing. Nylon is additionally combined with rubber for creating nylon tyres for vehicles.
Polyester: could be a polymer first synthesized in 1940. it’s widely used for clothing as pure polyester or blended with cotton and wool in numerous ratios. The clothing made up of polyester are crease-resistant, retaining cloth and thus highly suitable for shirtings, suitings and draperies. It comes under the brand names of ‘terylene’, ‘dacron’, “serene and ‘polyester’. it’s used as polyfill’, a fibre for filling quilts.
Acrylic: Acrilan and Orlon are soft and sturdy. Acrylic wool, blankets and furs are widely used since it’s strong and stain-resistant. it’s also used for creating carpets, upholstery, and fibre for filling quilts. they’re used as hard coverings sheet.
Over automobile taillights, for creating Synthetic wool-Acrylic surgical tools and lenses since acrylic are often made into transparent
Fibreglass isn’t a polymer but made up of glass. it’s strong (hard), durable, and fireproof. it’s widely used for creating helmets together with rayon. Fine fibres from glass are used as optical fibres for the transmission of sunshine.
Plastic Sheets and Plastic Materials (Thermoplastics)
Polyethene or polythene:
A product of ethylene. Polythene sheets are used as coverings for defence from rain, for poly packs and sachets. Polypropylene or polypropene: derived from polymerization of propane gas. A colourless transparent thermoplastic material commonly used for creating transparent containers, water pipes and pipe fittings, the body of the car batteries and toys
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): is polymerised vinyl chloride. most typically used for plumbing materials, furniture, doors, shoes, soft toys, gramophone records, CDs, raincoats, bathroom curtains, handbags and insulating electric cables (wires).
Polystyrene: Used for creating kitchenware, measuring cups, and mixing with rubber it’s employed in inlining refrigerators.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE): It withstands high temperatures hence used as a coating in cooking utensils and non-stick pans. The short name given thereto is ‘Teflon’.
Polyurethane: or the froth plastics. it’s going to be made into airy, spongy soft sheets being employed in mattresses for beds, fillings in cushions and sofa seats, and therefore the hard foam is employed in insulating buildings and providing false ceiling and inner linings in aeroplanes.
Testing lastingness of various fibres: Collect fibres of comparable thickness and same length of (a) motion, (b) wool, (e) silk, (d) nylon. Note, pull each thread separately to interrupt. it’d be easier to interrupt cotton thread, slightly difficult to interrupt silk and wool thread and will not be possible to interrupt the nylon thread. This shows that the lastingness of nylon (polyester and others) is maximum.